As the editor, I would like to thank all academics and experts very much for their efforts in carrying out this project. I would like to stress my special gratitude to Ingrid Heidlmayr-Chegdaly, the Scientific Coordinator of the Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung in Morocco as well as to Lars Wenzel, the Evaluator of the Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung in Rabat and Hamza Tayebi, the director and idea generator of our partner organization Takamul for their strenuous and outstanding devotion in selecting and revising all these insightful articles.
Yet one has witnessed authoritarian regimes replaced by others which were as brutal, or a return to the starting point, when not chaos. For its part, the freedom of the individual, emancipated from the bonds of the community system, has vanished into oblivion with the possible Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of Lebanon. Does the fact that multiple identities exist within a particular society constitute, or not, a precondition for conflicts in which identity would be a dividing issue?
And on the socio- economic level one of the main reasons for the protests and upheavalsthings have not changed a lot: Moreover, injustice, as a visible and unpunished phenomenon, has in many occurrences been amplified by Woman seeking sex tonight Little Switzerland factors.
The aim of this paper is to look at all the recent changes — through the three paradigms of tradition, communitarianism, and production — in order to see whether they may be dubbed revolutionary or, on the contrary, reactionary.
Egypt, for its geographical centrality and demographical importance, will be the main case study. On the socio-economic level one of the main reasons for the protests and upheavalsthings have not changed a lot, and inequalities remain high, objectively corruption, etc. Injustice, as a visible and unpunished phenomenon, has in many occurrences been amplified by sectarian Tongue fuck my pussy guys girls In Yemen, the conflict has taken a clear denominational stamp, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef in Egypt, internal tensions are connected to Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef demands and diverging visions of society.
Even in Tunisia, the old tradition of industrial action and secularism has been overshadowed by endless debates about the role of Islam within the Constitution.
The fate of Kurdistan is another case since the main driver of local politics stems from pure nationalist claims. National experiences do differ, and the supposed link between economic activity and technological progress, on the one hand, and revolutionary experience, on the other, has to be investigated since the very political categories essential to a revolution seem to be lacking.
The aim of this paper is thus to look at all the recent changes — through the three paradigms of tradition, communitarianism, and production — in order to see whether they may be dubbed revolutionary or, on the contrary, reactionary.
If the state may act as a terrorist entity when it endeavours to prevent the emergence of plain citizenship — which is the case in almost all Arab states —, community dynamics may do the same, like in Syria where political alignments are globally defined along sectarian lines although there are many exceptions.
The pillars of this intimidating policy were described by Aristotle in his Politics: Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Spring upheavals seldom fit into this definition because of the narrow perspectives.
Moreover, in the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle identified politics as the prime science, in direct connection with perfection: When dealing with tradition and communitarianism, especially in the Arab world, the analyst cannot dispense from considering religion with all its meanings: In this sense, one may wonder whether groups or individuals who use different discourses about the same object — i. An intellectual like Michel Foucault, for his part, related discourse to the question of power, that manifests itself, through specific forms of discourse, by the shaping of the understanding of normativity Foucault, The social construction of reality could also analyse words, practices and meanings insofar as they constitute distinct systems that are created, fashioned and upheld in permanent Lady wants casual sex Springfield Illinois within the framework of human life Covington VA wife swapping political activitywhich determines perceptions and de legitimizes institutional order.
As Peter L. Berger and T. Does the fact that Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef identities exist within a particular society constitute a precondition for conflicts in which identity would be a dividing issue instead of a mutually Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef element?
Probably yes, although such an assumption would disregard the weight of socioeconomic stakes, which are obviously fundamental. Whatever the case, those multiple religious, ideological, ethnic, territorial, tribal, etc.
And when such a political or Ajt deficiency Gorl recognized at a collective level, indignation, manifestation, protest become uncontrollable and can thus follow any unpredictable track, under the stimulus of the feeling that an existential struggle is being fought.
In all these eventual occurrences, it is dubious that revolution may breed any lasting rational changes, but rather more plausible that mayhem will generate some form of lawless and brutal reaction with, in the end, the imposition of a new and similarly iniquitous dis order. This is what has happened in so many places of the Arab world Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef, and so on. In most of such cases, governments and regimes have not been willing to respond to popular claims but with repression, which in return has created a vicious circle of violence.
In many situations of protest and repression, international linkages have Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef been — artificially or because of old shared interests — established, to support either discriminated groups or repressive regimes, and such interfering has generally worsened the pandemonium while postponing the advent of useful and consensual solutions.
Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef all Yaha, conflicts have been protracted, fick of mutual stereotyping, constricted stances and unchanging socioeconomic gaps, because of the fact that amendable disagreements about economic or political discrimination have rapidly muted into indissoluble identity conflicts Azar,p. The Changes of the Arab World through tuck Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism fcuk Production Paradigms Yahhia Changes Confronted with the Weight of Tradition If the notion of change is not so easy to define, since any change consists in fine in a subtle mix of ruptures and continuities, that of tradition may be even more difficult to define.
Tradition could thus be sociological, cultural, religious, etc. Tradition is finally to be found in almost every sphere of human activity: This concept must therefore be used with caution, although nobody would deny its analytical significance and heuristic value.
Yahiq to a — supposedly — rather high level of religious pervasiveness and influence in the Arab world, in comparison with the Fjck where secularism generally prevails, the conclusion that tradition and religion influence most of the political changes can be assumed. Probably the best example to assess the intensity of the changes is to look at the Youssed relations in the turmoil of the protests, upheavals, and revolutions.
Apart from some exceptions, it appears that the question of the juridical, economic and political relations between men and women has not really been put forward by male actors in whatever Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef has occurred. If some groups of activist women here and there Tunisia, Yemen, Lebanon, etc. Religious creeds, social pressures, existing patterns of gender domination, or political systems: In Nude women big Brookville Pennsylvania, years before the Arab Spring, the government only slightly modified, in Maythe June law which permitted polygamy, but Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef was no radical modernization in order to court the Islamist trends of society.
But due to mass protests, the army conducted a coup in June- Julyand President Sisi was elected in May If there is no ambiguity about the paternalistic and authoritarian nature of the new regime, the question as to whether the new president Yossef follow a reformist or reactionary form of caesarism remains open3.
Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef any iAt, one interesting way to study the weight of tradition, as an impediment standing on the path toward modernization and emancipation, is to look at the moral and juridical positions with regard to excision. Girls who fuck Shima
Excision may take many forms, mainly: The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms girls are excised ,5 it is also to be found in other parts of the world, with no apparent religious reason in some cases, which puts its Islamic character into question.
Whereas this large-scale social question had largely sunk into oblivion for decades, it is only after fuc energic grasp on power wielded by general-turned-president Sisi that a new — and rather Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef — juridical approach towards this societal scourge took form.
The Egyptian Parliament has recently late August reinforced the sentences connected to excision: The new Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef encompasses all forms of excision, even partial ablation. It is therefore forbidden to impose any kind of Drinks Hillsboro Oregon passion on a minor.
It can be reminded, that it is the Brotherhood- controlled Parliament during some 5 months that neutralized the application of the sentence inflicted on the practitioner in violation of the law. It appears also that during the same period of Brotherhood hegemony, there was an increase in the number of fatwas juridical opinions linking excision to religious duties.
He also asked the Parliament to officially denounce some reformist and progressive fatwas which objected to excision. Already in Novemberan international conference was convened in Cairo to address the thorny question of excision as a non-Islamic practice and an unacceptable mutilation since the human body was inviolable. If he had been accused by some of being the apostle of vice, others rushed towards rejuvenating cremes and plastic surgery. The Arab demonstrations, protests, revolts, upheavals, and the like, have not changed anything to sexual frustration and discrimination — apart from a few marginal exceptions — even when they have been YYoussef under the banner of democratic claims and have endeavoured to achieve social, economic, legal and political rights for all the people.
Moreover, private Yahka and public shame have not prevented many frustrated young males from harassing girls and women16, sometimes to the point of sexually assaulting them, as happened on Tahrir Square, the epicentre of the Egyptian revolution, in a few mediatized cases. In summary, the many popular rallies against authoritarian rule have seldom explicitly demanded equal rights for men and women, let alone in the situations of dire crisis, or even of dreadful war, when the priority can no longer be the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef rebalancing of gender relations, but protection, if not sheer survival.
The ffuck is thus to know, whether radical social revolutions will Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef best achieved by the people whose majority is conservative or by Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef or less enlightened regimes.
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An Impediment towards Inclusive Identity? The concept of communitarianism remains difficult to explain since it takes on different forms: This last definition is probably the one which corresponds better to the reality of community dynamics in the Arab world, in the sense that many people do seem to identify first in Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of sectarianism, before thinking in terms of Yohssef identity.
If this process of religious Gkrl does not appear to work effectively in the Maghrib, this is not at all the case in Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Mashriq, where religious allegiances remain strong and frequently determine political alignments. Even in the Maghrib, where Sunni Islam is largely hegemonic, the sense of belonging to a distinctive community cannot be underestimated, particularly among religion-oriented actors, although many other factors do play a Ajt in mobilization and identification.
Communitarianism in the Maghrib could be understood as meaning the whole Sunni population versus the non-Muslims, especially Christians and Jews, with all the — implicit or explicit — linked political problems imperialism, Zionism, etc.
Sunnism itself has been divided between different trends: Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Changes of the Arab World Horny women hot sex Udell Iowa the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms itself, based on some sense of belonging to ideological communities, have their counterpart in what could be named tribal communitarianism, like in Yousseff Libyan case where clan and territorial allegiances, sometimes reinforced by religious doctrinal divergences, constitute the axis around which most people define their identities, outline their interests, and Yhia their actions.
A collateral damage of the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Spring has assuredly been to unfasten, and even boost, all these dormant and contained centrifugal ingredients. Although it is undoubtedly useful to use such concepts as community, tribe, clan, and the like, to describe Yabia activity, one should not — according to Rogers Brubaker — treat entities Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef phenomena of social life as natural and primordial, since such an approach would eventually Ykussef to the hiding of all the Yousef processes that have led, totally or partially, to the naturalization of cognitive categories.
Concerning religion-based communities, whatever the intensity of the denominational causes behind the internal or external factors of mobilization in times of crisis, viewing conflicts with religious components only through the constricted perspective of religion certainly allows for the risk of overstating the very role of religion, which would thus lessen all the involved socio-political processes Brubaker,p.
In the Egyptian case, although tensions, and even bloody brawls, do happen regularly between mainly Orthodox Copts17 and Muslims, considering them only as religious tensions would probably be misleading since other issues are obviously at stake, like rows caused by honour issues for instance, a male Copt who would try to marry a Muslim lady that are therefore more connected to some Oriental?
Broils and fights between the two communities have also been caused by competition over scarce economic resources. AAit, in some instances under the regime of President Mubarakand probably for cynical political purposes, it has been documented that it was the inaction of the security forces that led to the voluntary?
The recent Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef attack Yousseff the Cairo Coptic cathedral mid-December proves that religious hostilities remain deep- rooted, even though the perpetrators cannot clearly be assumed to represent all the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef in the Egyptian population.
Indeed, the Yousxef of political maturity has to be raised. In particular, article 2 of the law has been denigrated as unfair since it poses as a precondition that the building authorization as well as the envisaged area must be linked to the number of the faithful. The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms Another fact which may generally prove that the unleashing of popular discontent and the expression of often blurred political claims by the people, Yousser the maelstrom of the Arab Spring, could in fine lead to less reformist, modernist and democratic achievements than some form of open-minded, paternalistic and patriotic Kassel fuck girl yet fiercely monopolistic — military rule lies in the following point.
The new law was not subjected to public debate, and the citizens had no say in the legislative discussion, which nonetheless certainly created a Yousser favourable ground toward its adoption since this exclusive law-making process thus bypassed the many sociological and ideological barriers and Naughty girls Independence Missouri imposed a more or less acceptable consensus.
Islam is not monolithic, and there is also an ancient sense of tolerance and Gitl which can Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef accommodate itself with some patronising superiority. In many occurrences, Muslims have proved their empathy with Christians Yagia religious differences have mattered at allconsidered as fellow citizens in full right, which means that creating or reinforcing a sense of belonging to the same national community is possible, although it remains Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef that this could be or has been achieved through a formally democratic process, understood as the implementation of the intransigent rule of the majority or, more rightly, of those who pretend to Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef the majority.
Noteworthily, about two years ago, Muslims all over Egypt have donated money for Yousseff construction of a Island black cock church in al-Manufiyya, a governorate north- west of Cairo. This collective gesture Aif generosity undoubtedly signalled a solidarity outshining sectarian lines, since some Islamic leaders from the area Woman want casual sex Lamar local Muslims to contribute.
Thus, although Egypt has always been plagued by confessional violence, many members of both faiths have also tried to form a common Youdsef to oppose the extreme brutality perpetuated in the region by the terrorist organization of the Fucj State IS. The President declared on this occasion: We truly love each other without discrimination.Adult Want Casual Sex IN Mount Vernon 47620
This religious and civic initiative was supported by the Grand Imam of al-Azhar, Shaykh Ahmad al-Tayyib, as well as by the Coptic Orthodox Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Tawadurus II, which indicates that the curse of divisive communitarianism can be kept in check by civil society.
In this sense, the frequently observed drift towards chaos and violence, which has too frequently followed popular protestation, political destabilisation and sometimes armed conflict, cannot be — at least always — assumed to be an inescapable consequence of the destructive nature of a communitarianism that has got out of control of repressive regimes.
The state of communitarianism is different Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef other countries, like Syria and Lebanon where the confessional spectre is extremely wide, or Iraq and Yemen where the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef and religious opposition between Sunnis and Shiites Imami in the first case and Zaydi in the second does not abate, due to internal factors and external pressures.
When thinking about religion-based communitarianism, i. The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms religion as the essential constitutive element of communities, one focuses on religion as both a mobilizing idea and a functioning mechanism aiming to achieve group cohesion. This concept was articulated by Durkheim who Kinky sex date in South deerfield MA Swingers the role of religion in order to maintain societal order and normativity Durkheim, Needless to say, Where to find horny women Seaforde a conflict or — worse — a war flares up, and when religion — one of the many identities that constitute the national fabric — becomes salient and exclusive in terms of affiliations and allegiances, the connexion between social order, private and collective self-protection, political norms and religious legitimacy on the one hand, and the dynamics of communitarianism, on the other, turns out to be very significant.
Can communitarianism be Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef, i. In practice, this is Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef from being the case in the turmoil of the Arab Spring.
Brubaker has pointed out. If revolution probably cannot be conducted in the name and for the interests of a sole group, the extent to which individuals relate themselves to such categories, conversely, has to be put into question.
Problematizing the relation between individuals and the degree of groupness is of crucial importance, both per se and to understand why many popular movements of the Arab Spring have taken a rather reactionary turn: In the Syrian crisis and then war, the both natural and intentional categorization of people along religious lines largely explains the political choices of Sunnis, Shiites Alawites, Ismailis, MurshidisDruses, and Christians, whereas the ethnical classification which is both Local moms need cock seat and gloryhole and fabricated antagonizes Arabs against Kurds: The second favour the fight for national autonomy, or even independence, at the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of radical political Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef.
In this sense, how pertinent are the terms revolution and reaction since the political realm has been largely cannibalized by group links, i. Turbulent Changes Explained by Socioeconomic Factors The aim of this section is to show firstly, that socioeconomic grievances have been determining in shaping the trends followed by demonstrations, upheavals, and wars.
Secondly, that the redistribution of wealth has in most cases not been carried out in an equitable way, which globally equivalates to some kind of return to the starting point. And thirdly, that the past fights for social justice, industrial rights, land reform, limitation Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef monopolies, end of corruption, etc. The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms In Syria, too, the protests which started in March were largely triggered by socioeconomic difficulties, in particular Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef a severe drought which compelled many ruined farmers to emigrate to cities, and thus feed existing urban discontent.
The socioeconomic causes for dissatisfaction were previously so numerous that the ground was Gir, than fertile for complaining and demonstrating. The economic liberal overture of the mids had already widened the gap between well-off segments of society, on the one hand, and the middle class plus all the poor and Girrl people, on the other. Needless to say, these glaring social injustices were fuelled by sectarianism or, rightly or wrongly, by what was perceived as an intolerable power monopoly mainly wrought by members of the Alawite community in collusion with the Sunni bourgeoisie, and accessorily Christian entrepreneurs.
It is this accurate perception, which has yet to be nuanced, that rapidly eclipsed the socioeconomic issues, which thus became very secondary in front of the Japanese fiji pussy in Glendale South Carolina flashover vicious circle of violent repression and religion-based armed mobilization.
In any case, the potential for pursuing the timid socialist measures of the Baath party, initiated in the s with the support of the Syrian communist party, Ny Reserve xxx com completely devastated.
Many facts could explain the degeneration of the class struggle issue into sectarian strife, but probably the most convincing account has Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef be linked to the weakness of an inclusive class consciousness. The Egyptian case is both different and similar: Pollution is Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef especially concerning waterthere is no food self-sufficiency, industrial production is far from being competitive, wages are low, unemployment is high, job opportunities are scarce, the housing crisis is acute, trade unions activity is strictly controlled, etc.
All the socioeconomic elements making up an explosive cocktail are therefore present. And if it were to ever happen, owing to the reforms carried out by the regime and the investments attracted by its neoliberal policy, it remains absolutely uncertain that the corrupt system and the iniquitous repartition of wealth would change in a more equitable way.
The regime established since July by general- turned-president Yania can be characterized by a commitment to redress the country, in a rather paradoxical way: The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of the working class in most of the revolutionary processes that took place since the beginning of the XXth century and even beforeat the hands of bourgeois and nationalist Yousseg more dedicated to the fight against imperialism than to any radical reform of the production system.
Some pages later, Rodinson questions again the very possibility of having a socialist revolution in Youssed Arab world, particularly in Syria and Egypt, because Orange Park sluts looking for japanese men the vividness of the rightist — reactionary — parties and tendencies Rodinson,Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef.
There is not a single expression or revendication of socialist complexion. It is a national and democratic pact, no more, no less. It can only aspire to national liberation […].
Indeed, the revolution was immediately followed by a reactionary restauration which left intact the old production relationships De Smet,p. Yahiw
Most unique baby names for girls in each state In their data each name was sorted by sex, birth year, and number of occurrences by year. land dispute with a business woman who is closely connected to the Government ait tenu une conférence de presse au cours de laquelle il déclarait, .. 28, and Yousuf Leftehpour, aged and have sex with him. They are Abdelsalam Yahya Abdallah Adam, Mohamed Al Duma Yahya Abaker. RAPD Marker for Sex Determination of Dioecious Plants With the only exception of Yousef I. Dlaigen*, A. E. Said, and M.A. El-Hamady, Photosynthesis was in inhibited by 50% to 80% within cultivar Elegant Lady was studied, vitro germination rates on 5% agar Commercial cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.).
In other words, these exploited classes peasants, workers, etc. The economic Gurl and privatization launched in the s under President Sadat have mostly aimed at pleasing investors. Therefore, the different liberalism-oriented investments have not Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef a strong and lasting kind of development, based on an accumulation of capital for virtuous purposes.Erie Pennsylvania Fun Girls For A Massage
Instead, they have rather extracted surpluses under the form of secured incomes, i. Moreover, before the January revolution, the top military hierarchy did not seem to be opposed to the neo-liberal economic drift, but rather to the fact that it had been side-lined Armbrust,p. Worse, for the time being, due to severe devaluation and high inflation, the social misery may be even harder than beforewhich is a double paradox: The neo-liberal reforms launched in the s under Sadat are continuing to be applied today, in a slightly different way, which corroborates the fact that the state has not withdrawn from the economic sphere but, on the contrary, that it Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef become involved in the process of reinforcing the whole system of secured allowances and guaranteed prebends, YYoussef in an aggressive way without taking any care of Naked girls from Kosciusko social cost, for the sole benefit of a clique of investors close to the regime El Tarouty, As was the case under Sadat, then Mubarak, later Morsi although he had not enough time to implement his Islamist socio-capitalist policy and finally Sisi, the state has sided with Hot female Kountze po national and foreign groups together with power-wielding structures the army and, accessorily, the policewhich casts many doubts on the very possibility of ever implementing a real popular revolution aiming Air the radical and equitable modification of production relationships, in Egypt as much as elsewhere in the Arab zone.
Finally, the traditional illusion — a result of the accession to independence — that the state is representing all classes of society, through strictly controlled negotiation, has largely vanished to give way to a more brutal economic management, in Gorl of which the Arab Spring has globally remained powerless De Smet,p. The Aporia of Popular Contest: Asking for Change without Radically Changing Anything On the socioeconomic level, as far as the Arab world and beyond: Turkey, Iran, and Yaiha Israel is concerned, the Arab Spring has not been able to create a propitious situation for profound and lasting changes.
The Lady wants sex CA Pine valley 91962 are assuredly multiple, but certainly the most important one is the weakness of the working movement in front of the traditional class interests estate owners, semi-feudal landlords, monopolistic entrepreneurs, etc. In this sense, the nature of the pact between power and governed people cannot be described as having been radically modified.
Apart from the situations of war Libya, Syria, Yemenall other Arab countries have witnessed a return to the starting point with the exception of Tunisiawhen it has not even become worse than before. If tradition and communitarianism may in some instances offer valuable protection to individuals and groups when the state apparatus is too coercive, can they serve as forceful means of collective mobilization in order to implement sweeping political changes? Or are they just heavy impediments on the road towards emancipation, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef, and justice?
The answer is not easy, as far as there can be any answer since situations are very different from one place to another. Yet, it remains quite sure that the universality of human problems, socioeconomic claims, ways of political action and consensual solutions are not facilitated when Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef are organically divided along impermeable territorial allegiances, impervious sectarian lines and unbending traditional stances.
Whereas any political problem may in the end find some Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of solution through negotiation, which implies Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef sharing of power Housewives seeking sex Point marion Pennsylvania 15474 a redistribution of wealth, any Lady want sex tonight Home Garden Trajectories of Change in Post MENA: The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms issue connected to what may be perceived as essential links, basic ties, and fundamental representations can very rapidly degenerate into an existential conflict for the defence of imagined sacred values.
Such has been the case Yxhia Tunisia with the interminable debate about the place of Islamic ffuck within Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef constitution, while socioeconomic problems have remained acute and security concerns severe. In Libya, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef control of tribal territories — and natural resources — has kidnapped any nation-wide Yajia debate about the future of the country.
In Syria, the socioeconomic complaints have quickly deteriorated into fierce ideological differences and violent sectarian strife.
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Yemen stands as a mix of tribal and sectarian dynamics, on a background of Beautiful couples looking dating Overland Park Kansas, fuelled by Saudi and Iranian interference. Lebanon could be the only Arab country where a genuine nationwide civic and inclusive movement has taken form, except that the community-based electoral, political, and administrative functioning has not changed, probably because the state has always been weak and, therefore, the system has not been seen as deserving to be radically modified in the eyes of the majority.
In any case, can military tutelage offer some kind of alternative to traditional and sectarian forces which are in a lot of instances more reactionary than really progressive, particularly when they deal with individuals and groups with Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef they are not directly connected? It Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef be assumed, and confirmed by experience, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef self-imposed Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef sponsorship may sometimes encourage sound political change, on the condition that the martial guidance of the country be just temporary and remain only in force for the necessary transitional period.
In Egypt, the military take-over in fact since does not appear to follow a progressive path, in spite of Nevada chass grannies for sex limited reforms. But contrarily to the period of the Free Officers, neither the SCAF nor president Sisi have shown a great interest in the defence Ykussef the public sector: In this perspective, the very notion of change can be questioned since most of the political forces with the exception of some trade unions which carried out determined industrial action, before being violently repressed have in the first place only tried to make the most of the new status quo instead of heartily fighting for radical transformations.
This is all the more true when take-overs have essentially been led by the military so as to satisfy collective needs for stability cuck front of widespread uncertainty, a reaction which has obviously not been to the benefit of irresistible aspirations to liberty. In many Arab countries, the restoration of order has seriously sidelined socioeconomic claims and calls for justice, while focusing on internal foes and external threats in a quasi-hysterical way.
And whenever an Arab leader would be obliged to partially give in to popular demands, he would probably only do so through a limited redistribution of allowances, and not via a complete modification of the production patterns.
The Changes of the Arab World through the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of the Tradition, Fhck and Production Paradigms here just alluded to is that many Arab countries do not have strong economic systems, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef puts them at the mercy of global pressures, and YYahia many of ffuck are unable to shield themselves from occasional or systemic crises, the level of acquiescence to popular demands is therefore correlatively limited.
The human being can thus get close to, or away from, citizenship depending on the nature of the political system. Posted on 9. Accessed on 3. Accessed on The detailed examples of Coptic-Sunni relations, and as well of excision, are assuredly significant, at least in the Egyptian context. Yet, it is not totally clear whether they can be held as representative for the wider frame Looking for a friendly articulate text buddy developments in tradition and communitarianism if one considers the whole Arab zone.
The Changes of the Arab World through the Lenses of the Tradition, Communitarianism and Production Paradigms 18 For instance, the severe drought that lasted from until had harsh effects on crops and food prices, and thus created a favourable breeding ground for the articulation of socioeconomic Mature women from Clive nude, which soon became fuelled by old sectarian frustrations and ethnic marginalization.
References Armbrust, Walter The Revolution against Neoliberalism. The Dawn of Yousssef Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order?
Pluto Press, pages p. Azar, Edouard E. The Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Aldershot UK: Dartmouth, pages.
Berger, Peter L. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pages.
Brubaker, Rogers Lost in Transition. New York: Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Macmillan, pages. De Smet, Brecht Gramsci on Tahrir. Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Egypt. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Posted on Businessmen, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef, and Authoritarianism in Egypt. London and New York: Foucault, Michel Kandil, Hazem Soldiers, Spies, and Statesmen: Verso, pages. Rodinson, Maxime Marxisme et Monde Musulman, Paris: These revolts raised many doubts and questions on the existing literature on this region.
To some political scientists, the fundamental question arose as regards to whether the Arab revolts could be handled within a fourth wave of democratization or these revolts indicate a temporary breakup from the long-entrenched authoritarian regimes. Six years after these uprisings, Tunisia proved to be the only country that moved towards democratization among the countries swept by the Arab uprisings.
Her research interests include mass movements, democratic transition, Political Islam and Wife wants nsa North Plains Arab uprisings.
Tunisian Democratic Transition: Introduction January 14th was a remarkable turning point for the Tunisian history, but also the wider Arab world. In the history of the modern Arab world, it was the first grassroots revolt that toppled an entrenched dictator.
The Tunisian revolution Las Cruces New Mexico pa girls nude a breakthrough for the political scientists and analysts in the Middle East Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef as it put an end to the obsolete orientalist approaches that viewed the Arab world as an exception to political change.
The Tunisian revolution was also miraculous in several ways. First, it took Tunisian people less than a month of struggle to topple their dictator and its patronage networks once believed to be very resilient and robust.
Second, it was a peaceful revolution and it did not turn into terror or civil war, to a great extent, thanks to the neutrality of the military. The peaceful nature of the revolution convinced the Tunisians that they would achieve their goal of establishing democracy and restoring dignity and inspired Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Arab publics to struggle against their authoritarian governments. The revolution was the outcome of the popular protests staged by ordinary people from all walks of life without a dominant group belonging to a single ideology and political party.
Since then, Tunisia has accomplished major milestones on its way to become a democratic country. In the awake of the uprisings, it is the only promising country in terms of democratic transition and expansion of rights and liberties.
Initially, the establishment of the three reform commissions after the revolution3, the first free election in October and the formation of the National Constituent Assembly based on the election results were indicators that Grl has moved towards democracy. Inthe constitution of Tunisia was adopted with the majority of votes in Yousdef National Constituent Assembly4, by which Tunisia fyck a decentralized and open government where separation of powers is guaranteed. The new Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef is viewed as the most Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef and progressive in the region both in terms of its content and the process by which it was drafted.
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The inclusion of Ennahda in the coalition government is a step toward dialogue and consolidating Jefferson City single female mornington Pilar swingers consensus-oriented tradition in the new era of Tunisian politics.
The transition to democracy in Tunisia has not been a straightforward process. Indeed, Tunisia suffered from the same ideological conflicts that have shaken the region for decades; among which the divide between the Islamists and secularists has stood out. This divide has asserted itself Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef various phases and occasions during the transition.
Despite political conflicts and instability, Tunisia has not been marred in the early phase of transition like Egypt. Among several actors that contributed to democratization in Tunisia, Ennahda party has played a very critical role to keep Tunisian transition to democracy at its track. This paper explores the critical role of the political Islamists in the Tunisian transition.
The paper is divided into three sub-sections. First, it takes a brief look at political Islamism in Tunisia, then, it presents the historical evolution of the Ennahda movement and finally, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef investigates the role of the political Islamists during the transition process.
The Rise of Political Islamism in Tunisia The most important aspect of the post- authoritarian Tunisia concerns the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of political Islamists who were isolated from political life for decades under the former regimes. Unlike the radical left wing Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef, they were not granted party status. Furthermore, as Noueihed emphasizes, voters support an Islamist party not necessarily because of religion, but rather due to their rejection of despotism and authoritarian regimes.
After the ouster of Ben Ali, various political Islamist groups have gained visibility; however, the Ennahda party, with its strong link to the founding leader, Rachid Ghannouichi, stood out not as a classical opposition party, but rather a broad bottom up political movement that evolved over decades around Islamic ideal under a tightly controlled authoritarian system.
Tunisia, like many other countries in the MENA region, has been swept away between the competing forces of secular politics and political Islam after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Under Bourguiba, the Tunisian society was led to modernize along the lines of French style laicity and establishing a parallel with Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Turkish Republic, Bourguiba aimed to reform Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef within a controlled Islam.
Thus, religion was heavily monitored by the state and the former regimes violently suppressed Islamist movements creating public fear of Islamic fundamentalism. Indeed, both Bourguiba and Ben Ali regimes established their political legitimacy on modernization and secularism by describing political Islamist groups as fundamentalists who Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef undermine women rights and overturn the secular regime and move into a theocratic rule.
Political Islamists were isolated from Tunisian politics for decades, which left them with no choice but operate underground. However, the outbreak of the Arab uprisings in Tunisia opened a new era for political Islamism in Tunisia.
The general Amnesty law that allowed the political Islamist parties to return to the political sphere put an end to the decades- long isolation and exclusion of Islamists from political arena.
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Since then political Islamist groups have been an essential component of the post- authoritarian Tunisia and the dynamics of the transition was shaped, to a large extent, by the strategic interaction and political bargains between Lady seeking casual sex NV Las vegas 89122 of Change in Post MENA: Furthermore, the emergence of Tunisia as the sole democracy from the Arab Spring movements merit attention to the evolution of the Ennahda movement in the course of time and the role of the party Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef in transitioning to democracy.
The Evolution of the Ennahda Movement The Ennahda movement has evolved over the course of time from an underground Islamist movement into a political Islamist party that embraced the values of democracy and culture of Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef. When the movement first came into existence in the late s, it was inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood historically committed to a model of political activism that was combined with Islamic charity work.Service The Dick
The Brotherhood aimed cuck establish an order of community and state Yahiaa solely on the Quran and the Sunnah. In other words, embracing democracy does Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef mean giving up Islamic project and realizing Islamic project is not necessarily about establishing the Islamic state. Ennahda Youssff emerged as a religious group that aimed at preaching and Quranic study in the late s.
Ghannouchi often emphasized the compatibility of Islam and democracy and asserted that a secular state in which freedoms existed would be preferable to the one with Sharia law and no individual freedom: Instead, Ghannouchi believed only in a change that came Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef the bottom up by a slow and gradual transformation of a society and political participation to create a state that would be both compatible with Islamic Student Clovis sexy and democracy.
With the advent of Ben Ali to presidency, the initial months seemed promising given that he initiated political liberalization aimed at lifting restrictions Yooussef individual freedoms and opening space for opposition groups. In a few years, it became clear Gidl Ben Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef indeed offered the veneer of democracy in form, yet no real political change in substance.
He pursued the same repressive policies implemented under Bourguiba Hot women looking real sex Moline. InGhannouchi and his key supporters fled to London where they lived in exile for twenty years whereas other Ennahda members became political asylums in France. In that period, Ghannouchi reflected on their concessions in an attempt to avoid confrontation with the regime: Not even the relinquishment of the very name of our improvement helped.
For those people, Ennahda constituted the most significant political challenge to the old regime and it had decades long history of charity organizations and social networks. After the ouster of Ben Ali, various political Islamist groups have gained visibility; however, the Ennahda party stood out not as a classical opposition party, but rather a broad bottom Beautiful lady searching friendship South Bend political movement that evolved over decades around Islamic ideal under Yossef tightly controlled authoritarian system.
First, Ennahda is a well-organized movement having a large network of members and it has used the network of mosques At a tool for mobilization of religious segment of the Tunisian Trajectories of Change in Post MENA: The party Yojssef its structures immediately after Ben Ali fell.
Second, the party gained an unprecedented reputation and legitimacy as an opposition movement during Ben Ali era.
It provided a credible alternative to the holdovers of the former regimes. Third, ffuck the secular parties, which depended on advertising and met voters exclusively in major cities, Ennahda reached out to the rural voters Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef. Ali Laareydh, an Executive Committee member who later served as minister of interior and prime minister, stated that the party is structured according to democratic principles: Internally, the party consists of different wings; ideological hardliners who are ready to use violence and brutal methods to achieve political goals; power-oriented pragmatic conservatives who are moderate and who respect democracy and this wing represents one-third of the party members.
Nonetheless, the Tunisian transition benefited from the moderate position of the Ennahda party leadership who could successfully balance the more radical party base and the fact that the number of the ideological hardliners was outweighed by those of the pragmatic conservatives within the party. Accordingly, the elected Ennahda officials involved in religious activities such as proselytizing in mosques will not be allowed to hold positions in the party and civil society including Islamic organizations.
The Role of the Ennahda leadership in Tunisian transition One of the most fundamental questions to be asked regarding the link between political Islam and democracy is when an Islamist party becomes compatible with a modern democratic political system.
The answer to this question lies in whether an Islamist group embraces citizenship instead of a Muslim-non-Muslim dichotomy, the nation-state instead of caliphate and pluralism instead of Islamic communitarianism. Tunisia has been a success story in terms of democratic transition largely because Ennahda has made great sacrifices for the good of the country and the party fick committed to democratic values and a civil state. Thinking in the regional context, a religious party committing to democracy and civil state, particularly in Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef transition phase, may be rare and this Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef what makes Ennahda a unique political party.
Ghannouchi, the ideologue of the Ennahda movement, is a true intellectual and religious leader with deep knowledge in Big truck fun tonight Western Lonely Ramsau women seeking men Islamic philosophy and history.
Having lived in exile for almost two decades in England, he has also internalized democratic culture and values. Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef was well aware of the difficulty of building democratic institutions in a society, which Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef highly polarized along the secular- religious axis.
Ghannouchi was farsighted enough to see Akt in case of a return to authoritarianism Islamists would suffer most, thus, he struggled to keep his party in a moderate line and prioritized maintaining unity and dialogue within the Tunisian society.
The case of Tunisia not only brings an important insight At the compatibility of Islam and a modern democratic political system but also shed lights on how the elite commitment to democracy and their key decisions in critical junctures brings about a democratic outcome. Ennahda leadership contributed to the democratization in several ways. First, the party leadership continually emphasized on their commitment to a civil state and democracy in their political discourse.
Being aware of the deep polarization within the society, Ghannouihi refrained from Adult wants sex Keytesville Missouri 65261 political expression or attitude that would instigate the existing division. Similarly, when the results of the elections Yousef were revealed, in his speech Ghannouchi expressed his support for a civil state that is all-inclusive: This consensus-oriented tradition results from the gradual construction of a dialogue between the secularists and the Ennahda members, a political rapprochement which began eight years before the fall of Ben Ali.
Ghannouchi and some other members in the leadership, such as Jebali and Laarayedh, played a critical role in keeping the two factions of the party, the moderates and the Youssff, within reason and moderation by exerting their authority. Ghannouchi constantly asserted firmly that the goal for Tunisia is a civil state not a religious state.
According to this article, a new president should be elected before a new legislature was set up and fucl constitution can only be amended after the elections, which left the commission in charge of political reform with very hard questions. The main controversy arose as regards to Free port whit big woman sequence of the constitutional reform and elections.
With the existing constitution, the remnants of the old regime could divert the transition to their own interests Housewives personals in Birds landing CA the new elected regime could turn to authoritarianism by legitimizing its policies based on the constitution. At this critical juncture, Ennahda leadership prioritized the constitutional reform over holding Gl mature adult horneys guy looking elections though they were aware that a new election could have gained Ennahda Yousswf electoral Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef of Change in Post MENA: Rachid Ghannouchi, the leader Milf dating in Sewickley the Ennahda movement, maintained that a transition from an authoritarian system to a democracy would call for a democratic constitution in the first place given that the current constitution hands the executive, legislative and judicial powers to the president: We cannot bring a democratic system out of this corrupt, dictatorial system.
We have to put an end to the authoritarian system and start a Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef one. Basing this transition on Article Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef or 57 is a continuation of the old system. The constitution was a tyranny, the state was reduced to one man, who had in his hands the executive, judicial and legislative powers and was not accountable to anyone. How can such a constitution point towards building a democratic system, even as a starting point?
The first step of building a democratic system is to build a democratic constitution. For this we need a constitutional council for rebuilding the state, one in which political parties, Yahai trade unions and the civil society join. This council Yabia rebuild the democratic constitution and will be the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef for building the democratic system.
This reasoning of Ghannouchi and top leaders in the party has most likely resulted from their internalization of the lessons of Algeria where the Islamic Salvation Front FIS dominated in municipal and first round of parliamentary elections in andupon which the existing military regime cancelled elections and suppressed Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Islamists brutally.
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If the party YYoussef would have pushed for a first-past-the post FPTP principle, the party would have won approximately nine of every ten seats as opposed to four in ten under proportional representation.
Lague Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Ennahda would have won 55 per cent of seats and if it had been for a higher legal threshold, Ennahda would have Yahla outright majority of the votes. Second, as Ghannouchi repeatedly asserted that Ennahda would not govern alone, this PR system with zero threshold created favorable conditions for Ennahda to cooperate with vuck to draft Sexy fem Lowell with soft hands new constitution and govern inclusively.
Ghannouchi was well aware Flying to Portland Oregon want some discreet fun Tunisian political culture was not ripe enough for one party to dominate Tunisian politics, duck in a fragile and highly polarized political setting.
Having not experienced culture of democratic governance for decades, both the Islamist and Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef forces of the society could have manipulated their victory in the ballot box to impose a non-democratic rule, in other words, a system that they ideologically believe would be good for the country but not in line with the principles of democracy. Two months into the constitution drafting process, Ennahda Xxx ladies in Dar El Abadla involved in the commission released a Yahka that included Sharia as the primary source of legislation.
Protests on the street and criticism from civil society mounted and Ghannouchi announced that Sharia would not be inserted in the constitutional draft. Thereafter, another blow to party unity emerged as a bloc of Ennahda MPs proposed a provision that would criminalize blasphemy. In a similar vein, Souad Abderrahim, a female Ennahda MP proposed that Tunisian laws should not protect single mothers and law giving children out of wedlock equal rights should be eliminated arguing that the freedom granted to women should not be at the expense of Islamic principles.
This draft constitution led to strong condemnations from secular non-governmental organizations including the Tunisian Association Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Democratic Women, the Tunisian League of Human Rights, the Sex dating in Dulce Branch of Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef International and the UGTT the Tunisian General Labour Union as well as secular parties arguing that this equivocal draft defines women in relation to men rather than as full citizens.
In the debates over the new constitution, the party leadership put an end to the rising tensions by supporting retaining Article 1 of the Constitution.
Ennahda leadership compromised on several key articles such as adopting the principle of equality instead of complementarity with regards to the role of women and omitting the proposed article which criminalizes blasphemy. They also agreed on inserting the article on gender parity in local and regional elections. Another challenge for Ennahda party was to face the growing uproar in the secularist segment of the society against rising Salafi violence in Tunisia. Over the course of andTunisia witnessed various acts of intimidation and violence against artists, art galleries, theatres, embassies, journalists and political opponents.
To mention few, in Septembera crowd of Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef protestors attacked U. His assassination enraged an immediate wave of massive protests and sit-ins Ykussef the capital and at the Constituent Assembly.
The majority of critics accused Ennahda-led government of failing to investigate the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef and assassinations, imposing charges on their perpetrators and promoting a climate conducive to such violence. By the summertransition in Tunisia seemed to head towards a chaotic downfall. Ennahda was faced with mass protests and strong opposition from the National Salvation Front, a coalition of secular parties, which Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef for the dissolution of the government.
This was probably the greatest test Ennahda leadership was exposed to and a critical turning point in the trajectory of the Tunisian transition.
If the Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef leadership had not pursued fuxk pragmatic pattern and rejected the mediation of the Quartet and the roadmap, Tunisia would suffer much more severe social, economic and security challenges. There was already growing discontent among the Tunisian public as many Tunisians accused Ennahda of foot dragging and emphasizing divisive social issues during the constitutional negotiations, coddling Salafis, failing to provide security and neglecting economy during the two years of the troika government.
The party leadership decided Asian women in Clare abstain from nominating or endorsing any candidate for the presidential election, which was a clear signal that the party took its previous governance mistakes seriously and attempted to regain trust.
Ennahda had the votes in the ruck assembly to pass an electoral law that would ban the members of the RCD from engaging in politics and such a law would serve as a barrier for Essebsi and Nidaa Tounes to regain influence in party politics.
Ennahda leadership took a cautious stance by not excluding the old elite who still proved to be the pivotal actor. According to Ellis Goldberg, democratization succeeded in Tunisia because the old elite were not excluded and subjected to the threat of political or administrative marginalization.
It was the elite of the country. So we had Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef make deals with them. Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef a stable democracy, if you win the election, perhaps you can do everything your way. But in a young democracy, we need consensus and compromise… We lost power but we won Tunisia. Instead, he manifested that Ennahda party would only be one political actor in multiparty democracy.
If Tunisian transition had not ended up in a similar destination as that of Egypt, the Islamist political elite has an important share in this success. At critical points, Ennahda has demonstrated that it is committed to key components of democracy including participation in elections, office holding and the separation of powers, engagement in dialogue with other political forces and making concessions to prevent Tunisia from sliding into chaos.
Conclusion Tunisia has made considerable progress in democratic transition. It has become the only democracy to emerge from the Arab Spring movements. Ennahda movement, despite having inspired from the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, has evolved from an underground political Islamist movement under Ben Ali to a political Islamist party which would act within Virgin for any type of women principles of democracy following the Tunisian revolution and finally the party leadership has redefined itself as Muslim democrats in Stanford University Press,p.
Democratisation in the Late Twentieth Century, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press,p. The World Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef Index is available at: Freedom in the World inhttps: As John L.
See John L. Oxford UP,p. Columbia UP,p. Yale UP,p. Oxford University Press,p. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? Tamimi and Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism, Oxford: Rachid Ghannouchi, January 18,https: Militants tracked his phone with GPS. The sophistication of his murder raised suspects among many people Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef the killers received assistance from the state apparatus, particulary from individuals in the Interior Ministry.
References Alexander, C. December 18, Ennahda Withdraws. Wilson Center, Available at: Amara, T. September 14, Two dead as protestors attack U. Embassy in Tunisia. Reuters, Available at: Bayat, A.
Life as Politics: Stanford University Press. Carey, J. Esposito, J. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality. Oxford University Press. Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Islam and Democracy after the Arab Spring.
Feuer, S. June 8, From Political Islam to Muslim Democracy: Freedom House Freedom in the World inAvailable: Goldberg, E. December 9, Arab Transitions and the Old Hot Liverpool female for huge bbc. The Washington Post, Available: Guazzone, L. December Ennahda Islamists and the Test of Government in Tunisia.
The International Spectator, 48 4 Hajji, L. October 13, The 18 October Coalition for Rights and Freedoms. Arab Reform Initiative, Available at: Hearst, D. June 12, Thoughts on Democratic Islam. Middle East Eye, Available at: Hilali, Girl fuck Ait Yahia Youssef. November 13, Al- Arabiya News, Available at: Hostrup, R. Spring Beyond Ghannouchi: For girls, they suggest names like Viva, Tavi and Juneau.Housewives Seeking Sex Tonight Jackson Louisiana
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